Script to disable right click

Tuesday, January 17, 2012

Some Important Questions from The Living Organisms and Their Surroundings

Q. 1. How are the bodies of organisms specially designed or adapted to help them live in their own habitat ?

Ans. 1: The bodies of animals are adapted or specially designed to help them live in their own habitat. For example, squirrels have sharp curved claws to give them grip when they climb the trees they live in. They have strong back legs for jumping among the branches, and big, bushy tails to keep them steady when they jump. In the same way, moles live under the ground, and they have feet like spades for digging their tunnels.
In case of plants, Cacti live in the hot, dry desert and these plants have fleshy stems for storing any rainwater that falls.

Q. 2. Describe the various types of plants and animals on the basis of their habitat.

Ans. 2: Types of plants on the basis of their habitat :
(i) Hydrophytes. Also called aquatic plants, they are the plants living in water like lotus, water lily, water hyacinth, etc.
(ii) Mesophytes are the plants that grow on land with sufficient water, e.g., most herbs and trees.
(iii) Xerophytes are on land in dry climate having scarcity of water, as in a desert, e.g., cacti and babool.
Types of animals on the basis of their habitat :
(i) Aquatic. These are the animals that live in water, e.g., fish.
(ii) Terrestrial. These are the animals that living on land, e.g., horse and elephant.
(iii) Amphibious. These are the animals that live both on land and in water, e.g., frog, toad, etc.
(iv) Arboreal. The animals that live living on trees, e.g., squirrels, monkeys, etc.

Q. 3. Explain in detail the characteristics of the living beings.

Ans 3: Following are the characteristics of the living beings :

(1) Cellular Organisation. All living beings are made up of cells. Some living things consist of only a single cell, e.g., amoeba. Such living things are called unicellular organisms. The organisms that are made up of more than one cells are called multicellular organisms, e.g., rose plant, man, housefly, etc.

(2) Nutrition. Food is required by all living things as it provides us energy to perform different activities. It also helps in body growth as well as its maintenance and repair.
Green plants can prepare their own food. They obtain water and minerals through their roots. For preparing their food, plants also require carbon dioxide. This is absorbed from the atmosphere by the leaves through present on their surface. The green plants utilize (i) carbon dioxide from air, (ii) water and minerals from soil, and (iii) sunlight to prepare their food. This process of preparation or manufacture of food is called photosynthesis.
Animals, on the other hand, feed on plants or other animals for their food.

(3) Respiration. All living things respire. They take in or breathe in oxygen from the air and give out carbon dioxide. The oxygen is used to produce energy from the food consumed by the organisms which is utilised to perform various life activities.

(4) Growth. Growth is a permanent and irreversible process. All living things grow from a single cell. However, the pattern of growth, however, is different in plants and animals.

(5) Excretion. Excretion means the removal of waste materials from the body. Accumulation of waste materials is harmful for the body. It excreted mainly in the form of sweat, carbon dioxide by the living animals.
In plants, carbon dioxide and water vapour are excreted from small pores in their leaves. In some plants, wastes are given out in the form of gums or a thick fluid called latex.

(6) Reproduction. All living organisms have the ability to produce young ones of their own kind, e.g., a cat produces kittens who grow into adult cats. In case of plants, take the example of a mango tree, which bears fruits which possess seeds. The seed develops into a young seedling and in due course of time, into a tree. This means that living beings can make more of their own kind.

(7) Movement. Living things show movement. The movement in plants is not the same as in animals, like those of like walking, running swimming or flying. In plants, the stem moves towards light, the roots grow downwards in the soil in search of water and in sunflower plant and the flowers change their position to face the sun.
However, some animals like sponges, corals and sea-anemones do not move from place to place.

(8) Response to Stimuli. Living things respond to stimuli or changes in their surroundings, e.g., if our hand touches a hot object, we respond by quickly withdrawing it. In sensitive plant, the leaves curl up on being touched by hand.

No comments:

Post a Comment